Mayan achievements have been proven by the civilization they left behind, which witnessed their greatness. The Mayan achievements were great and creative.
The Mayan civilization extended to most parts of Central America, reaching its height and prosperity in the classical period.
This civilization lasted for almost 3,000 years and consisted of several small states, each with its own ruler. Mayan civilization dominated the ancient world.
It is noteworthy that it has found a group of densely populated villages throughout the areas inhabited by the Mayan civilization. There are still some Mayans concentrated in Mexico.
What did the Mayans invent?
The Mayan people invented many things in different fields. And had their own secrets for making their civilization in the ancient world. The Mayan people were able to engrave on caves, stones and rocks, which had a great role in their culture. This culture was spread to many other countries and civilizations.
Mayan people and their customs and traditions
The Mayan people appeared thousands of years ago and had a role in spreading many of their customs and traditions.
And they are considered among the most important peoples and tribes, because of their many roles and different cultures and diversity.
They consisted of many communities, including farmers, merchants, pastors, nobles, and slaves.
The Mayan people were known for their strange customs and traditions. For example, they took off all their teeth, except for the upper class and the nobles only had the right to keep their teeth.
The Mayan men distinguished themselves by having a beak-shaped nose, so they invented some special wares that made the nose like this, among them was the one who put out precious stones.
The Mayan civilization was like any other civilization, and it flourished in many areas and was distinguished by it. And the Mayan achievements appeared in various fields.
Astronomy and Calendar: The Mayan people created a calendar system called the calendar (Rosnamya), a system of long counting through different units ranging from day to millions of years.
The calendar (Rosnamya) consists of eighteen months, with each month consisting of only 20 days, except for one month of only five days and known as the Mayan month. The calendar was introduced in 3114 BC.
In the field of astronomy, the Maya people knew the dates and the days accurately, and they knew the movements of the stars, as well as the phenomena of eclipse.
Agriculture: One of the most popular crops that the Mayan people cultivated was maize, as it was considered the main ingredient in their dishes.
The Mayan people are the first people to plant and consume cocoa. They also planted flannel and beans, and cared about bee-keeping, where honey was one of the most important drinks, and was considered one of their spirits drinks.
Architecture: The Mayan people distinguished the construction of large temples and pyramids, and the Mayan civilization remained on some archaeological sites like: Copan in Honduras, Tikal in Guatemala and Tazumal in El Salvador.
While the temples of the Kokolkan temple remain; it is famous for having ninety-one degrees on each side up to the top of the pyramid, to be the total base of this pyramid with the four degrees 365 degrees, a number that corresponds exactly to the number of days a year.
In addition to the city of Palenque in Mexico, which is one of the most important innovations of the Maya people in architecture, and is one of the largest archaeological sites of this great civilization.
Literature and language: The Mayan people speak many languages, about 36 languages. They also have many mythological writings; these writings formed an essential part of their culture. Among these writings is the sacred Mayan book (Popul Fuh).
Mathematics: one of the most important Mayan achievements is that the Maya civilization knew the zero number, unlike other civilizations, and they were familiar with some various calculations such as multiplication, division, and plural.
Weapons: The Mayan people were distinguished by their knowledge of many things and the arts. They were able to invent strange things, since they were able to manufacture weapons from black glass and rocks, and never used iron.
Rituals and religion at the Maya
The religious and political authority of the Mayan civilization dominated the affairs of society. The Maya people also had different religious rituals.
They had many special events, such as the Mass, as well as some emergency celebrations such as famines, epidemics and drought.
They used the stone pyramids as their temples, and the temple was decorated with inscriptions or painted with elaborate designs.
The devotees provided corn, fruit, hunting birds and sometimes blood and offer them as offerings and gifts to the gods.
One of the most important religious rites and offerings to the gods is the painting of some slaves, ordinary people and prisoners, and offering them to sacrifice themselves.
They were thrown with arrows, and then they throw themselves from above the pyramids, and after the fall they take off their hearts and offer them as priests.
Collapse of the Mayan civilization
The Mayan civilization did not collapse in the known form of the collapse of civilizations, but it was destroyed by several factors, including wars.
The Mayan people lost their civilization and everything, and there is no clear reason for this, but when Spain attacked them, they lost everything, and they simply disappeared.
Famine and climate change have had the strongest impact, as climate change from wet to dry.
And during the period when the Mayan civilization flourished, it was full of agricultural expansion and population growth due to the good and humid climate. This climate continued for long periods.
After climate change and its transition into a dry climate, the Mayan people fled away from the dry climate. The Mayan civilization collapsed.
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